Monday, February 28, 2011

Definitions TQM

A good idea, method, information, object, or service that is the end result of a process and should serve as a need satisfier. It is usually a bundle of real and elusive attributes (benefits, features, functions, uses) that a seller offers to a buyer for purchase.
A distinguishing feature or attribute of an item,product, person, phenomenon, etc., usually divided into three categories: (1) physical, (2) functional, and (3) operational.
Shortcoming that prevents a product from being complete, desirable, effective, safe, or of merit, or makes it to malfunction or fail in its purpose.
The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs.
Quality level:
The amount of replication of set Standards. A general indication of the extent of departure from the ideal/standard (usually a numerical value). It indicates either the degree of conformity or non-conformity of quality. It is used in a comparative sense.
Quality policy:
Intentions, direction, and aims regarding quality of its products and processes defined by the Top management. The quality policy forms one element of the corporate policy and is authorized by the Top management.
Quality Management:
All management activities and functions involved in determination of quality policy and its implementation through quality planning, quality assurance and quality control.
Quality Assurance:
All those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide sufficient confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. QA frameworks include
(1) testing of procured material for its conformance to established quality, performance, safety, and reliability standards,
(2) certification and rating of suppliers,
(3) determination of adequate technical requirement of inputs and outputs,
(4) proper receipt, storage, and issue of material,
(5) evaluation of the process to establish required corrective response,
(6) audit of the process quality, and
(7) audit of the final output for conformance to (a) technical (b) reliability, (c) maintainability, and (d) performance requirements.
Quality Control:
The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill the requirements of quality. QC involves operational techniques and activities aimed both at monitoring a process and at eliminating causes of unsatisfactory performance at relevant stages of the quality management.
Quality system:
Collective organizational activities, incentives, plans, policies, procedures, processes, resources, responsibilities, and the infrastructure required in formulating and implementing a total quality management (TQM) approach.
Total quality management (TQM):
A long-term success of an organization requires progressive changes in the attitudes, practices, structures, and systems. TQM involves everyone in the organization, and covers every function like administration, communications, distribution, manufacturing, marketing, planning, training, etc. This term has several meanings
(1) building quality into products and practices right from the beginning and doing things correct right from the very first time,
(2) understanding of the changing needs of the internal and external customers, and stakeholders, and satisfying them in a cost effective manner,
(3) commitment and direct involvement of highest-level executives in setting quality goals and policies, allocation of resources, and monitoring of results,
(4) realization that transforming an organization means fundamental changes in basic beliefs and practices and that this transformation is everyone's job,
(5) instituting leadership in place of mere supervision so that every individual performs in the best possible manner to improve quality and productivity, thereby continually reducing total cost,
(6) instituting flexible programs for training and education, and providing meaningful measures of performance that guide the self-improvement efforts of everyone involved, and
(7) eliminating barriers between people and departments so that they work as teams to achieve common objectives.
Product quality:
To ensure the quality of products, it is necessary to identify the losses in quality and then find methods to control the process and to improve the product. If a problem is due to poor quality of raw materials or ingredients, can be discussed with suppliers and if necessary, the processor should introduce appropriate testing methods with tolerance limits that are agreed with the supplier. If a problem is due to a processing condition, such as the time or temperature of heating, the process control is improved by better staff training, use of thermometers etc. All changes should be monitored to make sure that they are effective and details of the changes should be recorded in a Production Workbook. Such procedures are intended to control the parts of the process that significantly affect product quality and therefore help the processor to employ staff where they are most effective.

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